Currently we have only the basis of information on the Planet of Icarus. if you have ideas you think we can't do without, please join the message board and post them!

From Space
Icarus is slightly smaller than Earth and has a lesser axial tilt. This means that Icarus has shorter years (320 days), shorter days (22 hours) and that it's seasons aren't as extreme when you advance more to the poles. Basically, most of Icarus has a temperate climate.

Time
Icarus has a year of 320 days which is divided into 8 demi-seasons or "months" (early spring, late spring, early/late summer, early/late fall and early/late winter) of 40 days each. Seasons are fairly mild but most places still get snow (or at least sleet) in winter.
Basic time system is determined by the sun and goes as follows:

  Early watch: Just before dawn, this time frame is most likely the equivalent of 6.30-7 am. This is the time most of the people wake up (unless they're fortunate enough to be rich in which case they can sleep in).  
Day Break: After Dawn, around 8 or 8.30 am, with the sun roughly 10 degrees above the horizon. For most people on Icarus this is breakfast time, but farmers would already be out on the fields at this hour, while richer people might just be rolling out of bed.
Morning  
Noontime: With the hours passing and the sun at it's Zenith, people make time for lunch and get out of the midday sun in the hotter seasons.
After Noon  
Dark watch: Dusk, with the sun about to go down, this would correlate with about 8.30 pm. Most people are getting ready to turn in at this time since there'll be little light to go by until the next daybreak (candles are expensive you know).
After Watch: The sun has now completely set and it's very very dark outside. Every sane person would stay inside since most Knights and Sherrifs are off duty and only a minimal night patrol will be keeping the peace.
Midnight: The time when one day becomes the next. (10 pm)

Vegetation & Climate
Below you see the map of Icarus without castles or any other markings from which you can get the types of vegetation in the different regions of Icarus.

The equator (line between 6-7) runs through the crash site and the climate around it is warmer. At places this caused a lot of rain to fall and rainforests to emerge, in other places, mostly where nex necii ate away a lot of the dense vegetation, dryer climate-types like plains, savannah and deserts emerged. 
The temperature cools when you move toward the poles but stays pretty temperate though with noticeable change in seasons the further away from the equator you go. 
You can imagine a Mediterranean/Southern climate between sections 4-5 and 8-9. A little further away regions 3 and 10 have a Temperate climate like central Europe/America. The regions beyond have a Scandinavian/Northern Climate.